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Forest fire prevention unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) solution
2015-10-10 11:05:07
Forest fire prevention unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) solution

Forest resources in China is relatively poor, the forest coverage rate of about 13%, the per capita area of forest occupies only about 1/6 of the world average, but the forest fire has happened every year, how to solve the problem of forest fire prevention, and become the key of the forestry work. At present, the abroad application in forest fire prevention more new technology and new equipment, domestic application in this aspect demand is also increasing, gradually increase the investment in forest protection, successively using satellite resources census, forest fire monitoring, while using unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) system for forest fire monitoring is the initial stage.

Unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) in the low level monitoring system has a motor fast, use technical characteristics such as low cost, simple maintenance operation, has the ability to have a rapid real-time monitoring, is a new type of low real time television imaging and infrared imaging fast acquisition system. In the car, people cannot reach area resources and environment monitoring, forest fire monitoring and rescue command has its unique advantages.

Is the national forestry ecological construction of the main body, while maintaining has an indispensable role in the economic and social development, in the process of biological evolution plays an enormous role. Our country's forest area of 175 million hectares, the forest volume is 12.456 billion cubic meters, the forest coverage rate is 18.21%, is both a big country, forest resources and forest fire happens. State forestry administration FangHuoBan provided data show that in 1950-2007, our country forest fire happened 22566 times per year on average, suffer forest area of 977500 hectares per year. For fighting fires consuming a large amount of manpower and material resources and financial resources, forest fire damage to the forest resources and ecological environment caused by the loss is difficult to measure.

Therefore, how to apply high-tech means to forest resources monitoring, the fire early discovery, early prediction and early saves, change a disaster to disaster, disaster is a disaster of forest fire prevention work has become an urgent and important issue to be solved.

1, the international usually forest fire prevention technology

By the German Fire - Watch System of forest Fire automatic warning System is an application of digital camera technology of forest Fire automatic warning System, it can timely identification and positioning of forest fires, is the latest technology in Europe. The system after years of field trials. In 2002 in the state of Brandenburg, mecklenburg - cutting wave Murray and Saxony installed 24 sets of this kind of camera system and 7 sets of the second generation of the Fire - Watch device, then the forest region a total of nearly 120 forest fires, not an omission. The Fire - Watch the System normal monitoring 10 km radius, as far as can be up to 40 km, to install the System each set to be 75000 euros.

The use of "earth" satellite in orbit around the earth is about 705 kilometers off the ground, to detect the high temperature area on the ground, smoke and fire site. To drive for 24 hours monitoring early warning aircraft fires in the United States, although succeeded, but took large amounts of money.

From the satellite launch is Canada electromagnetic radiation detection in temperature, when detected in local temperatures to rise to 150 ℃ ~ 200 ℃, infrared wavelength of 3.7 microns, is the precursor, fire immediately to determine the specific temperature, take measures to fire in time. At the same time, the Canadian forest region by more than equipped with advanced helicopter turns monitoring, forest fire FeiHangFei needs 5000-6000 euros per hour.

In October 2006, NASA (NASA) and the United States forestry bureau in California to use the Altair (Altair) "unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) conducted two flight over the forest fire. Use infrared scanner is provided by the NASA Ames research center to find out the main fire point, and sends the data to the ground station, about every 30 minutes to the ground relay transmission of fire image and almost real-time provides situational awareness for the firefighters. The completion of the mission also marked the first time the federal aviation administration (FAA) approval of civil uav mission in the national airspace.

Some foreign technology is reliable, but needed a satellite, and the construction is too complicated; Some technical solution infrastructure investment is too large, as many as hundreds of thousands of dollars, the cost is too high, which is difficult to meet the actual needs of forest resource monitoring in our country.

2, domestic forestry fire protection solutions

The company "uavs forest fire warning system", to provide international quality of high quality, stable domestic prices of forest fire prevention system. This system mainly on forest fire monitoring, GPS technology, digital image transfer technology and other high and new technology comprehensive application in forest resource management in high-tech products. The uav system has the following features:

1) the independent intellectual property rights, the price is cheaper.

2) digital yuntai combined with GPS, point precise positioning;

3) point which fly which, with the fool operation, one-click recycling;

4) clear camera, clear imaging, real-time understanding of fire data;

5) real-time monitoring, executable navigation task;

6) wireless digital transmission, avoid field wiring;

7) move quickly, a wide range in forest area of fire prevention surveillance;

Especially in the forest fire occurs very low visibility over the fire, even the air plane can reach over the fire, observers are also to be able to see detailed ground fire situation, and in this case, flight and deposit safe hidden trouble. Unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) navigation of the plane is overcome this deficiency, and through carrying cameras and video transmission equipment, can carry out fire reconnaissance and fire detection task at any time. Ground personnel by receiving microwave signals from unmanned aerial vehicle (uav), at any time to grasp the dynamic information of fire. Drones can be in the air around the clock to exploration of forest region, find the fire in time, report the fire location, action will be a fire in the early; Uav is equipped with color CCD task load, according to the desired track on forest air patrols. And air patrols to obtain image data real time back to the ground control stations, the ground control stations to transmit real-time image through the network to fire department on duty. For suspects or area, by remote control instructions can change the unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) flight track and altitude to carry on the detailed survey, detailed survey via a wireless link back to the ground in real time. On areas where there has been a fire in the air the fire situation observation, make the fire command department rapid organization effectively, cloth agency fire team, improve operational efficiency, prevent fire fighting personnel casualties.

Uav is equipped with color CCD task load or infrared detection task load can be 800 to 2000 meters below the surface altitude real-time observation of ground fire, will obtain the real-time image data back to the ground. Provide fire for ground fire department first geographical coordinates, latitude, (with), fire area and fire boundary, fire spread fire situation such as intelligence, make the key area for extinguishing fire army quickly deploy staff, promptly notify the firefighters evacuated from the dangerous area, and according to the fire image information is provided for the firefighters evacuated path.

The system can also be used for a line of fire control team equipped with portable image ground receiving equipment. Unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) for aerial observation of fire image sent by broadcast mode to the ground, on board a gleam of fire fighting forces can be in any area receives the real-time situation of fire images and data to further improve the fire control efficiency of fire fighting forces. To eliminate flame area for prospecting, air flux found in time, effectively prevent fire again. Depending on the airborne fire observers to the naked eye cannot be observed to fire flux. In fire area is larger, the use of ground personnel find flux method, to use a large number of personnel and personnel safety. Uav is equipped with infrared detection task equipment, air to ground in the far region infrared detection, infrared detection device can be sensitive to the surface through the smoke temperature, the infrared detection task of refrigeration equipment can increase the infrared detection range, improve accuracy is sensitive to temperature. Unmanned aerial vehicle using infrared detection task load can obtain a complete state of the ground temperature distribution images of fire area, fire real-time infrared image back to the ground. Can make the fire command prompt understanding fire extinguishing effect, timely deployment of firefighters to focus to prevent hidden danger point or area to eliminate flux. Color CCD task load by installing the uav aerial observation of far region for forest fire damage evaluation of real-time image, and can be the key area to get more details of the image data.

It can be seen that the application of the unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) focus on patrol in the ground can't consider the early detection of forest fires in the remote region, and a variety of dynamic information on major forest fire scene accurately and timely, also can solve the plane couldn't want a night patrol, smoke, which brings the problems such as visibility to fly. As a powerful supplement existing forestry monitoring means, unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) shows the incomparable superiority to other methods, in the forest fire monitoring, prevention and fighting, post-disaster assessment will be widely used.

At the same time, the uav system can also be used for artificial precipitation, its easy to use, good maneuverability, easy to put on, without the risk of personnel safety characteristics and contents, so especially suitable for artificial precipitation enhancement in forest fire prevention work. Drone carried 10 precipitation flame article, through the rack mounted in the middle of the belly and the landing gear. Flight to ignite a article flame by remote control to control the ground, and through the remote sensing information display article flame has state. Every time can root tree is lit at the same time at the same time more smoke tubes. According to a man-machine cloud seeding operation on the number of silver iodide and operational areas, the relationship between the silver iodide content of article 10 of precipitation enhancement flame can meet the requirements of a cloud seeding operation area of 100 square kilometers. The fire of the current our country, the monitoring system is not sound, fire poor communication, fire prevention road network density is too low, aerial forest fire coverage is not wide, machine source shortage, lack of night and the ability to fly low visibility conditions, far cannot satisfy the actual work needs. And unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) has a long battery life, video real-time transmission, high-risk area detection, the characteristics of low cost, flexible, low to the requirement of meteorological, and there is no airport, pilots and aircraft maintenance expenditures, use maintenance cost far less than human. Unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) as a powerful complement the current fire monitoring method, can in forest fire prevention and forest fire get rapid development. Unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) application in forestry is still at the initial stage, there is no scale, with the deepening of the unmanned aerial vehicle (uav) application in different fields of forestry, to forestry in our country, especially in forest fire prevention work, promote the forestry economic development make a positive contribution.

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